Evidence Library

Showing 10 of 34 results.
Jennifer Wood, PhD •
Public Health Law Research
Jeffrey Swanson, PhD •
Duke University, PHLR Methods Core
Scott Burris, JD •
Center for Public Health Law Research
Allison Gilbert Robertson, PhD, MPH •
Duke University

This monograph illuminates one key component of service systems, policing, highlighting the role of police officers as front-line workers in the community, and it examines trends in thinking and practice and common challenges surrounding policing and mental illnesses internationally.

 
Patricia Sweeney, JD, MPH, RN •
University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Center for Public Health Practice
Richard Zimmerman, MD, MPH, MA •
University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Center for Public Health Practice

This study evaluated whether vaccination mandates, either by hospital policy or state law, may increase flu vaccine coverage for healthcare workers. The study finds that vaccination rates were significantly related to mandated vaccination with termination for noncompliance and declination or noncompliance that results in consequences other than termination.

 
Bhaven Sampat, PhD •
Columbia University
C. Scott Hemphill, JD, PhD •
Columbia University

The Hatch-Waxman Act regulates competition between brand-name and generic drugs in the United States. This study examines a feature of the Act that has attracted great controversy but little systematic attention. “Paragraph IV” challenges are a mechanism for generic drug makers to challenge the patents of brand-name drug makers as a means to secure early market entry. The study first presents descriptive results that chart the rise of brand-name patent portfolios and Paragraph IV challenges.

 
Bhaven Sampat, PhD •
Columbia University
C. Scott Hemphill, JD, PhD •
Columbia University

Observers worry that generic patent challenges are on the rise and reduce the effective market life of drugs. A related concern is that challenges disproportionately target high-sales drugs, reducing market life for these “blockbusters.” To study these questions, this study examines new data on generic entry over the past decade. The results show that challenges are more common for higher sales drugs. The study also demonstrates a slight increase in challenges over this period, and a sharper increase for early challenges.

 
Richard Zimmerman, MD, MPH, MA •
University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Center for Public Health Practice

Overall annual influenza vaccination rate has slowly increased among health care workers but still remains below the national goal of 90 percent. One hundred fifty hospitals required influenza vaccination, 84 with consequences (wear a mask, termination, education, restriction from patient care duties, unpaid leave) and 66 without consequences for noncompliance. Hospitals whose mandates have consequences for noncompliance included a broader range of personnel, were less likely to allow personal belief exemptions, or to require formal declination.

 
Kevin Outterson, LLM, JD •
Boston University School of Law
Aaron Kesselheim, MD, JD, MPH •
Brigham & Women’s Hospital

The world faces a worsening public health crisis: A growing number of bacteria are resistant to available antibiotics. Yet there are few new antibiotics in the development pipeline to take the place of these increasingly ineffective drugs. This study reviews a number of proposals intended to bolster drug development, including such financial incentives for pharmaceutical manufacturers as extending the effective patent life for new antibiotics.

 
Silvie Colman, PhD •
Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.
Ted Joyce, PhD •
Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.

Parental involvement (PI) laws require that physicians notify or obtain consent from a parent(s) of a minor seeking an abortion before performing the procedure. This study shows that prior evidence based on gonorrhea rates overlooked the frequent under-reporting of gonorrhea by race and ethnicity, and presents new evidence on the effects of PI laws using more current data on the prevalence of gonorrhea and data that are novel to this literature (i.e., chlamydia rates and data disaggregated by year of age).

 
Kevin Outterson, LLM, JD •
Boston University School of Law
Aaron Kesselheim, MD, JD, MPH •
Brigham & Women’s Hospital

This letter to the editor of Clinical Infectious Diseases explores the "10 x ′20 initiative" — a global commitment to develop 10 new antimicrobials by 2020. The authors question the development costs, the current clinical trial system, and the neglection of current antimicrobials. They also examine issue of quality versus quantity and conclude that "... we need to set priorities to achieve a balance between antibiotic conservation and new drug development, focusing on policies that will best serve public health.

 
Caleb Banta-Green, PhD, MPH, MSW •
University of Washington, Office of Sponsored Programs

In this article for the Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine (now JAMA Pediatrics), the author discusses two articles, by McCabe, et al. and Meier et al., but also raises two questions about the issues of opioid abuse and adolescents. He asks, "What is the role of parents and what is the role of the prescriber, and others, in educating parents about the potential hazards of opioids, the relative need for them, how to safeguard them at home, and the need to dispose of unused medications immediately?"

 

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