“Law and Society” is the term for scholarship using a variety of social science methods to study law and legal institutions. This chapter shows how theory and methods yielding insight into core issues like law and inequality, the politics of law, the workings of legal culture and institutions and their effects, and how this can improve our understanding of how law can diminish or improve public health. The unique contribution of this approach is its focus on meaning-making as a mechanism of legal effect. The chapter first explores key concepts and mechanisms of legal effect emphasized by law and society researchers, highlighting methodological strategies appropriate for leveraging these concepts in public health research. Second, it develops the potentially far reaching implications of the law and society approach for policy interventions dealing with “fundamental causes” of variation in health outcomes