This study will examine mandatory reporting by departments of social services to the district attorney when there is evidence of child abuse addressing: How do rates of prosecution, plea, conviction, and penalties vary within the state? What explains variations? How does the variation affect child maltreatment? The study also examines whether family drug treatment courts prevent future maltreatment and foster placements.
Washington State is among the first to legalize recreational marijuana. Local ordinances already exist to regulate medical marijuana, but a strong state medical regulatory framework does not exist. It is unclear how variations in local laws will impact marijuana access, use, initiation, and related outcomes such as injury and crime, particularly among youth.
The prevention and control of tuberculosis (TB) in the homeless population is an important public health goal, hampered by the reluctance of some homeless people to undergo medical screening, as well as the lack of evidence to support the best interventions for encouraging and increasing screening among those seeking shelter. This project will identify which of three legal mechanisms will result in the greatest reduction of undetected active TB cases among homeless people using emergency shelters.
This study will analyze the impact of the regulation on youth cigar use, and will answer: Has the regulation resulted in a reduction in cigar use prevalence among 9-12 graders in Boston after its enactment in 2012? Was the reduction in cigar use prevalence among 9-12 graders in Boston greater than those of municipalities that have not enacted the regulation? To what extent has the sales price of cigars increased in retail stores since the enactment in 2012?
Driver inattention is a significant contributor to traffic-related injury. A 2006 naturalistic driving study estimated that 78 percent of crashes and 65 percent of near crashes involved some form of driver inattention.
This project will study six Los Angeles neighborhoods to assess the extent to which land-use regulation affects the crime in communities. The study will explore the relationship between crime, the built environment and land-use regulation.
Stakeholders in sports medicine have focused on decreasing the risk of repeated concussions among athletes. This study will use a random sample of high schools in Washington to determine the effect of the type of implementation of concussion-related laws on the risk of playing with concussive symptoms, the methods by which these return-to-play laws are implemented, and the effect of those methods on concussion outcomes is unknown.
Americans saw more than 2.8 million foreclosures recent years, and the impacts on public health are largely unknown. The foreclosure process may impact health if it causes stress-related illnesses such as hypertension and diabetes, if it forces reallocation of household funds that are otherwise used for health care, if it occasions dislocation that impacts treatment relationships, or if it degrades health-related behaviors such as diet and exercise.
The rapid growth of the immigrant Latino population in North Carolina and nationwide has led to immigration policies that may have a potentially profound impact on utilization of public health services. This study will evaluate whether a relationship exists between local immigration law enforcement and the utilization of public health services, especially prenatal care, by Latinos.
This study examines the policies and structures of local and state health departments, and how they impact public health. The study will focus on the structural arrangements of the local boards of health (such as whether the boards of health are elected or appointed) and the level of state health department centralization, and how they affect performance, fiscal health, innovation, collaboration, and strategic planning.